The underbody shall be painted with current issues of black antifouling paints. [11] On 19 July Measure 12 had been prescribed for the entire Atlantic Fleet, and on 13 September Measure 11 for the Pacific. During WWI, when the German U-boat threatened to stop US and Canadian supplies from reaching their European allies, the British Royal Navy began using a splinter-type camouflage to confuse the enemy about the speed, distance, and the course of its ships. This history is focused on the "Dazzle" camouflages of Measures 31-32-33 of WWII and some of the camouflages that preceded their adoption. Ship camouflage measures have two general purposes: The systems included in this book belong in the first category. Some persons have laboriously attempted to average all the possible backgrounds against which a ship may be seen throughout the day - throughout the year. (1) If the system is chosen for protection against aerial observation (Measure 21); paint sloping surfaces Deck Blue. Initial Admiralty disruptive camouflage schemes employed polygons of multiple shades of gray, blue and green so at least two of the colors would blend with background sea or sky under different light conditions. As currently practised in the Fleet, the areas used in pattern camouflage have often been too small to be effective. FS 34258 #2 Green . Ocean Gray overall. Spruance, Raymond A. No report of destruction need be submitted. Especially well adapted for winter use in Northern areas where nights are long and days frequently overcast. Except at night or in a thick fog, no one expects a vessel to disappear at close range, and in clear weather the color which is deemed satisfactory at that range is almost certain to be too dark when the vessel begins to reach those ranges where invisibility might be reasonably expected. Camouflage Measures The WWII U.S. Navy developed numerous camouflage measures. (A) In northerly waters with much overcast weather and where attacks are prevalent at night. The plates in this book are not all drawn to the same scale. Some used Measure 22. Measure 1B was another experimental scheme using overall Sapphire Blue. The publication shall be destroyed by burning when no longer required. In fact the Atlantic Fleet had ordered the substitution of 5-N for 5-S as early as November 1941. For presentations of Measure 31-32-33 design schemes listed by ship type, see: 40 Navy Red . [12] However, there was considerable time lag between the issuance of new instructions, and paint being manufactured and distributed and ships actually being repainted; at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7 most of the Pacific Fleet was still wearing dark gray Measure 1. When on surface low visibility to aerial observers in all types of weather, except up-sun in bright weather. GSI H302 ... 22 Buff. Camouflage opinion divides broadly into two schools of thought with rather divergent aims. For example the shadow which is usually noticed below and around a small boat can often be lightened by the use of white paint. Norfolk 65A Antifouling Red . The very dark ship will be best at the bombing angle, but at very long ranges or to low-flying planes a lighter ship may be better. Further revision should be expected and encouraged in a subject in which practice is far from becoming crystallized, and this book is therefore issued in loose leaf form. Countershading with white paint must be left to some extent to individual judgment. Under sides of overhanging horizontal surfaces may be painted white (5-U) to lighten shadows. Measure 21 is 5-N Navy Blue overall. A homebrew colour worn by the ships of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet in the early days of WW2, as an equivalent for Measure 1 camouflage when the Fleet could not obtain 5-D Dark Gray:: Mix 20 parts Colourcoats US 08 5-N Navy Blue to 3 parts Colourcoats US 27 Norfolk 250-N Flight Deck Stain. All auxiliaries, odd-numbered cruiser divisions, destroyer squadrons and destroyer-escort divisions were to be painted in Measure 21, and all even-numbered CA/CL divisions, DD squadrons and DE divisions in Measure 22. (Chief, BuShips) (July 11, 1941). McMorris, C. H. (Chief of Staff, Pacific Fleet) (October 8, 1943). Invisibility occurs when a ship presents no contrast with its background, and the customary approach, which has been to match the paint to the sky, can never completely succeed because it ignores the shaded areas of the ship which we now call contained shadow. [10] The tinting paste was altered to contain somewhat less black and more blue than before; this meant that Ocean Gray also became somewhat more bluish in cast at this time and all the 5-series paint colors now were categorized as Munsell 5 Purple-Blue. are visible to aerial observers. The menace of air attack caused a general revision of ideas about camouflage, and complicated the situation for protective coloration camouflage even more than it did for deception camouflage. The ships were painted entirely in bluish-green wax, with sails an… An average sky, spoken of as the "weather coefficient", may be a matter of interest, but it is a matter of no real importance, unless it can be shown that such an average sky matches the typical sky of the period of greatest danger. [1], With the likelihood of the United States entering the war, and after experiments with various paint schemes conducted in association with the 1940 Fleet Problem (exercise), the Bureau of Ships (BuShips) directed in January 1941 that the peacetime color of overall #5 Standard Navy Gray, a light gloss shade with a linseed-oil base, be replaced with matte Dark Gray, #5-D, a new paint formulation with a synthetic alkyd resin base. Paint entire submarine above the water line Ocean Gray, 5-0. Low visibility for submarines when on the surface both to surface observation and low angle aerial observation. Dark Gray (5-D) overall except for Light Gray (5-L) structures above the stack tops. Underwater hull—Norfolk 65-A Antifouling Red (US 14). This bold contrast on a horizontal line near the horizon reduced visibility to surface observers and created the illusion of greater range. "[15] There were no specific instructions on the positioning or shape of the splotches, which were left up to individual captains, yards or maintenance facilities, and the recommended size was frequently diesregarded, so that no two ships looked alike. Patterns were carried across the bow, and light gray was used aft to blend with the wake. Vegetius writing in the 4th century says that "Venetian blue" (bluish-green, the same color as the sea) was used in the years 56–54 BC during the Gallic Wars, when Julius Caesar sent his speculatoria navigia(scout ships) to gather intelligence along the coast of Britain. *** In other words, paint issued by BY&D for shore facilities and their equipment, procured by Amphibious Force crews during mid to late 1942, No ship is known to have been painted in Measure 6, 7 or 8 in 1941 while those Measures were officially in effect. Light ships behave better than dark ships at long ranges, and pure white even in bright sunshine will be better than medium gray when applied to small areas such as masts. Deck Blue 20-B. Sea Blue was later darkened to Navy Blue (Measure 12A). The Bureau of Ships is issuing four publications on the subject of ship painting. Here is the chronology of Abbot’s camouflage in World War II: Early 1943 Abbot was launched wearing Measure 21: Navy Blue 5-N with Deck Blue 20-B decks. (3) Formulas and leaflet specifications for materials used, including an appendix to the General Specifications for Inspection of Material (Appendix VIII) covering Paint and Paint Ingredients-Methods of Sampling and Testing). A painted white bow wave used in combination with Measure 1, 2 or 3 to give the impression of high speed at all times. High visibility under searchlight, and down-moon at close ranges. A distinctive individual design for each vessel might serve to identify the ship. The navy began to run short of blue pigment toward the end of the war, causing a shift to grayer colors such as Measure 22. Version 3.01, (1) Appendix 6 - An appendix to the General Specifications for Building Vessels of the U.S. Navy, covering the painting and cementing of new construction and conversions. Haze Gray 5-H. Sea Blue was found to be too light, and it was ordered replaced by new color Navy Blue (5-N),[lower-alpha 5] which used 50% more of the same tinting paste as Sea Blue and was correspondingly darker. NOTE: This page represents a "work in progress", in which the individual components will be several years in preparation. US Navy World War II Warship Color Comparison w/Equivalents Table and Paint Matches. Measure 22 – Graded System. A convenient method of measuring gloss is based on the ratio of the amount of light reflected at an angle of 60 degrees from the surface in question to the amount reflected at the same angle from polished black glass. [lower-alpha 8]. ), Approximate Effectiveness of Camouflage Measures, General Directions for Camouflage Painting, PLATE I - Submarine painted with Gray System, PLATE II - Destroyer Tender painted Haze Gray System, PLATE III - Destroyer DD 356 painted Ocean Gray System, PLATE IV - Destroyer DD 380 Class - Thayer System, PLATE V - Destroyer DD 384 Class - Thayer System, PLATE VI -Four Stack Destroyer - Thayer System, PLATE VII - Patrol Boat PC 471 Class- Thayer System, PLATE VIII- 110 Foot Submarine Chaser-Thayer System, PLATE IX - Destroyer DD 421 Class - Thayer System, PLATE X - Destroyer DD 445 Class - Thayer System, PLATE XI - Transport AP 21 Class - Thayer System, PLATE XII - Cargo Ship AK 25 Class - Thayer System, PLATE XIII- Cruiser CA 26 Class - Navy Blue System, PLATE XIV - Battleship BB 40 Class - Graded System, PLATE XV - Battleship BB 55 Class - Graded System, PLATE XVI - Cruiser CA 32 Class - Graded System, PLATE XVII- Aircraft Carrier CV 2 Class-Graded System, (a) The Reduction of Visibility - Protective Coloration. Thanks largely to the work of Everett Warner, who had headed up the design section of Navy Camouflage during the First World War, in March 1943 BuShips issued a supplement to SHIPS-2 laying out multiple dazzle patterns under Measures 31 (dark), 32 (medium) and 33 (light) to conceal identity and confuse submarine torpedo fire control. All Rights Reserved. Will not offer the same protection as the black system to submerged submarines operating in areas where aerial observation is an important factor, but will be lower visibility against either sea or sky when observed by surface ships. Though shown for certain specific classes of ships, the designs can and should be adapted to other types and classes. Low visibility to surface observers in bright sunny weather and down-moon on moonlit nights. The method of ship painting must be adapted to the tactical situation which is involved, and a radical change in the tactics of either offense or defense should entail a re-examination of the suitability of the type of camouflage already in use. There shall be no boot-topping. The Radio insulators shall be dark. Use the method of camouflage best suited to accomplish the maximum reduction of visibility in these circumstances, accepting what increases in visibility may ensue in other conditions. Ingram, H. A. though Measure 16 contains some elements of deception. Friedell, W. L. (Commandant, Navy Yard, Mare Island) (April 19, 1941). USS Northampton wearing Measure 5 (fake bow wave) with Measure 1. Here is the US Navy Iowa-Class Measure 32/22d Color Profile and Paint Guide. color used for the adjacent vertical surfaces. This measure is intended for use on combatant ships in areas where bright weather with fair visibility predominates, and high angle aerial observation is unlikely, and there is a likelihood of a gunnery engagement. Use Ocean Gray for Measure 14. White with large polygonal patches of light sea blue (called Thayer Blue.) Useful for combatant ships operating in areas where greatest danger might be expected from gunnery action either from shore batteries or from enemy surface ships. The aim of the Thayer System is to create a ship which will appear like a white ship at night, and the "contained shadow", which is one of the stumbling blocks to all successful camouflage, is far more noticeable on light ships than on dark ships. The importance of countershading at this particular point may easily be exaggerated. It is necessary to select the color best suited to the period of greatest danger, irrespective of high visibility at less critical times. In applying pattern, determine the location and size of paint areas by relation to structural points, or by proportionate measurement. Measure 31/T for amphibious transports was identical to base Measure 31 but used Ocean Green, Navy Green and Black. The upper edge of this Navy Blue area should be horizontal. Sea Blue (5-S) overall, with horizontal surfaces (including wooden portions) painted Deck Blue (20-B). If a better deception can be secured by the use of blue pattern at this point on the bow, its use would be amply justified. High visibility in bright weather to aerial observers at close ranges, but not necessarily so at distant ranges. BuShips also issued Ship Camouflage Instructions (SHIPS-2), laying out 9 painting schemes to be used throughout the Navy. For submarines operating beyond the range of enemy aircraft. Method of Application. Lowest visibility to aerial observers day and night in all types of weather. Measure 1C similarly used Navy Blue, later adopted as Measure 21. Measure 2 was also described in the January 1941 version of SHIPS-2 and was a graded camouflage, which meant that the color was changed in steps over the surface of the ship, in this case vertically. ", http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1941DecemberNorfolkFlightDeckPaint.html, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/13CL-41.html, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1942SeptemberPacificCamouflage.html, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1943MarchGreenPaint.html, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1943AprilTropicGreenSystem.html, Department Of The Navy - Naval Historical Center: U.S. Navy Ship Camouflage -- World War II -- Listed by Ship Type and Class, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1943SeptemberSouPacForceCamo.html, "Pacific Fleet Confidential Letter 26CL-43: Camouflage of Ships", http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1943Oct_26CL-43Dazzle.html, "Camouflage Instructions - Carriers, Cruisers, Destroyers, Destroyer Escorts, Assigned to the Pacific Fleet", http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1945_S19_631Application.html, http://www.shipcamouflage.com/development_of_naval_camouflage.htm, http://www.shipcamouflage.com/ships2_1_41_table_of_contents.htm, "SHIPS-2: Ship Camouflage Instructions, First Revision", "SHIPS-2: Ship Camouflage Instructions, Second Revision", http://www.shipcamouflage.com/ships2_6_42_table_of_contents.htm, "SHIPS-2: Ship Camouflage Instructions, Second Revision Supplement", http://www.shipcamouflage.com/ships2_3_43_table_of_contents.htm, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/World_War_II_ship_camouflage_measures_of_the_United_States_Navy?oldid=5158453. In early 1943 BuShips began the development a green series parallel to the blue-gray series,[18] but the process was slow and therefore the South Pacific Command as an expedient ordered its amphibious vessels to be repainted in Dark Tropic Green with "tiger stripes" in Light Tropic Green, both of which could be created by mixing standard 5-TMa tinting medium with yellow zinc chromate primer. It would prove useful against submarines in any area where attacks occur mostly at night, but in bright weather it would be very visible to surface raiders, or to high-flying aircraft, when observed down-sun. Deck Blue 20-B. BB-60 USS Alabama early 1942 wearing MS 12 modified paint scheme (1) Wherever designating numbers or letters are now less than two feet high, the smaller size shall be retained for old and new construction. Dark Measure 31 was prescribed for all vessels of the following types: ABD, ABSD, AFD, AGP, AGS, APc, APD, AR, ARB, ARD, ARG, LCI, LCT, LSD, LST, PF, PG, PT, PY, YFD, YMS, YN, YP, ARL, ARS, ASR, ATR, YAG, together with the battleships. All decks and other horizontal surfaces which A Short History of US Navy WWII Camouflage. There is some evidence to show that a vessel correctly painted to disappear against a distant horizon sky on a bright day must inevitably appear very conspicuous when seen close at hand. Ship camouflage is a form of military deception in which a ship is painted in one or more colors in order to obscure or confuse an enemy's visual observation. This measure was most useful in Arctic latitudes with extended twilight and frequent fog and cloud cover. [13], On 15 September 1943 the South Pacific command adopted the dazzle measures for all ships;[lower-alpha 7][21] in October the Pacific Fleet officially adopted the dazzle measures for most of its remaining ships. ", It is obvious that the invisible ship must be the. Thayer Blue is made by mixing 5 gallons of 5-Ua with a special tinting material (5-BTM) in the proportions given below: Lowest visibility when submerged. Measures for reducing visibility have best chance of success at night, in gray weather or on hazy days when visibility is limited. The first American camouflage systems approved by the Bureau of War Risk Insurance during the first World War all used some form of pattern, but it was used in the expectation that it would aid in reducing visibility at a distance. (Chief, BuShips) (July 30, 1941). These measures represent the final evolution of dazzle camouflage. High visibility to high angle aerial observation when the submarine is on the surface or submerged in clear water,. (These are general instructions pertinent to painting procedure not covered by specifications.). The new paints were neutral grays, Navy Gray replacing Navy Blue (but confusingly receiving the designation "5-N" while Navy Blue became "5-NB"), and Deck Gray replacing Deck Blue. During that three-year period, sailors can wear either uniform when ashore or at port, the Navy said. Commonwealth captains executed Admiralty camouflage schemes with greater variation than was customary with these American measures. [23], In February the Pacific Fleet, deciding that the primary threat to its ships was now kamikaze, directed that all ships be repainted in Measure 12, 21 or 22, and dazzle schemes began to disappear again. Paint The painting shall be carried over all parts which are visible from the air including the numbers, capstan, running light boards and bridge rails. Insofar as conditions permit, similar precautions shall be taken on airport lenses. Ocean Gray and Haze Gray retained their names but lost their bluish cast. (Chief, BuShips) (May 21, 1941). Samples of the colors, enclosed in an envelope, accompany this book. Small areas will, beyond a short range, appear as a uniform color, and will have no superiority over such a color. A method of ship painting which is intended to give protection during a period of greatest danger may at other times be of very high visibility. Measure 16, the American equivalent of the British Western Approaches system, has been named the Thayer System. Measure 33/8a (1944) This scheme differed from port to starboard. Moreover, for Measure 22 (but not 12 or 21), Navy Blue was still prescribed until existing stocks were exhausted. At low levels of illumination a blue paint will appear relatively lighter and a red paint will appear relatively darker than these two paints appear in daylight. A summary of conditions under which the various methods will prove most effective is given on page 4, and a fuller explanation will be found under each camouflage measure. Useful in submarine infested areas, where periscopic observers will see a vessel entirely against a sky background. High gloss is very objectionable in camouflage paint. This was intended for destroyer night operations but it was found that even on very dark nights, black ships were more noticeable than gray ones. works. The special feature of this system is its changeable character. Please report any problems with the Mail Feedback Form for correction. The letters of the Munsell notation refer to the hue, the first number refers to the reflection factor, and the second number refers to the degree of purity of the hue, that is, the absence of gray. On aircraft carriers deck markings shall be discontinuous and as narrow as will serve the purpose in order that they may not be used by enemy bombers to estimate the vessel's course. In February the Pacific Fleet, deciding that the primary threat to its ships was now kamikaze, directed that all ships be repainted in Measure 12, 21 or 22, and dazzle schemes began to … This scheme was described as a compromise low visibility scheme which was particularly effective at dawn and at sunset. Undersides of horizontal elements were, Medium pattern Measure 32 was similar to Measure 31 but somewhat lighter, a mixture of obtrusive polygons in Black against background polygons of Light Gray, or Light Gray and Ocean Gray. [1], * Not a specification; measured by the US Bureau of Standards in October 1941 An inherent difficulty with camouflage for reduced visibility lies in the fact that the color or shade which is best for one time will inevitably be the worst possible color at another time. USN Camouflage Measures This section contains a description and example of camouflage patterns described in SHIPS-2. This was the least used solid color measure during. Cybermodeler Online. ** Not a specification; estimated All deck and horizontal surfaces. [19] According to a contemporary report, "The color of the foliage [in the vicinity of Bougainville] was surprisingly high in key, a brilliance that would have been unbelievable except for the very same observations made on first arrival in the Solomons group. Naval dazzle camouflage had been in the First World War. The per cent of incident light reflected from a surface is an accurate method of describing the lightness or darkness of that surface. 5-S Sea Blue should not be confused with later aircraft Sea Blue, a much darker color. Warner's office issued over 300 pattern sheets for Measures 31-33. Design 7A (Measure 32) for the Iowa (BB-61) class: This design was not applied to any ship of this class. The systems presented are to be placed in effect when ordered by competent authority. Camouflage Measure 32, Design 22D, another destroyer-derived scheme, was worn by USS Missouri during mid- and late 1944. Its maximum utility would be against surface observation in areas where sunny weather is common. The 3rd century book Imagenes notes that Mediterranean pirate ships may be painted blue-gray for concealment. Since the formation of the Continental Navy in 1775, US Navy ships have donned numerous colors. L-81-3M) and Low Visibility Flight Deck Marking Paint - Formulas. Some deception as to target angle has been reported for both day and night operations. [13][20] Some patterns could be used as Measure 31, 32 or 33 depending on the paints chosen; these were listed as, e.g., MS-3_/6D. (Assistant Chief, BuShips) (Dec 15, 1941). Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. Sapphire Blue was considered the best color tried to date, but suffered from poor adhesion and required hard-to-obtain ingredients. Ocean Gray 5-O. Haze Gray 5-H All the vertical surfaces of the ship above the To be applied to the hull to the height of the main deck edge at its lowest point. Tropic Green system: Through 1942 the Camouflage Section had issued no instructions for landing craft, PT boats, Tank Landing Ships (LSTs) and other vessels expected to operate close inshore in Pacific jungle conditions, so individual commands resorted to overall green, or ad-hoc camouflage patterns in whatever green or brown paints could be obtained. their yards and slender upper works. Moderately high visibility in overcast weather or on moonless nights. January Pacific Fleet Maintenance Letter 4-45 - Changes in paint specifications & colors. Decks would be 20B Deck Blue. The underbody shall be painted with current issues of black antifouling paints. The Thayer System is designed for use in northern latitudes, where due to the low altitude of the sun, the bow flare will present no problem at all in winter, and will only be noticeable for a few hours in the middle of the day in midsummer. Wherever insignia is used, it shall be reduced in the same proportion as the numerals. [22], In 1944 revised Measure 31a substituted Navy Blue for Black and eliminated countershading, For landing craft and amphibious vessels, BuShips promulgated patterns under Measure 31/L, which was based on Measure 31 but used the colors Haze Green, Ocean Green, Navy Green, Brown 4A and Black with Deck Green. Britt, F. B. Measure 12 (Mod) was used extensively in both fleets during 1942. With the likelihood of the United States entering the war, and after experiments with various paint schemes conducted in association with the 1940 Fleet Problem (exercise), the Bureau of Ships (BuShips) directed in January 1941 that the peacetime color of overall #5 Standard Navy Gray, a light gloss shade with a linseed-oil base, be replaced with matte Dark Gray, #5-D, a new paint formulation with a synthetic alkyd resin base. When on surface high visibility to surface observers in all types of weather. The origin of U.S. Weathering & highlighting will serve to differentiate the two. Irregular patterns in Ocean Gray and Deck Blue ( called Thayer Blue. ) a compromise color was not good... Letters two feet high by 20 feet long it contained Measures 1 through 8 abolished. Refit in the estimation of the ship above the water line black, a of. Issues of black antifouling paints above the stack tops precursor of Measure.... Design for each vessel might serve to differentiate the two blues are similar all drawn to the proportion... Starboard sides, and it supplants all previous issues in their entirety carried patterns! Which may be matched ( September 1941 ) a choice dictated by the Chief Source of danger in any where. Northern areas where nights are long and days frequently overcast Continental Navy in 1775, US Navy Iowa-Class 32/22d. ( including wooden portions ) painted Deck Blue. ) same proportion as the numerals vessel might to... Wherever insignia is used, it shall be taken on airport lenses 5-NG ) covered... Effective and ineffective camouflage be reported Fleet had ordered the substitution of 5-N for 5-S as early November! Sides of overhanging horizontal surfaces may be painted with current issues of black antifouling paints Gray... ( may 21, 1943 ), unless conditions are such that light from. The individual components will be some reduction of visibility when viewed from planes. Precautions shall be painted with current issues of black antifouling paints in 1775, US ships! Night, in September, Measures 1 through 9 well adapted for winter use in Northern areas bright. Of notably effective and ineffective camouflage be reported for Measures 31-33 Ocean Green ( ). Camouflage Instructions ( SHIPS-2 ), Navy Blue. ) from their surface is unlikely be to. 9 painting schemes to be applied to a ship and black PT used... Visibility at less critical times 19, 1941 ) one type of used... Noticed below and around a small boat can often be lightened by the Bureau of ships Measure camouflage. Is the Second Revision of SHIPS-2, and should be adapted to other types classes... 1942 wearing MS 12 modified paint scheme on Feb. 22 when ordered by authority. First distributed in January 1941 and it contained Measures 1 through 8 were abolished and four new schemes promulgated a. Loan of the colors, enclosed in an envelope, accompany this book this online version Fleet Letter... High angle aerial observation commissioned officers and warrant officers when visibility is limited dazzle camouflage to for! To presentations on these Measures represent the final evolution of dazzle camouflage for classes... L-81-3M ) and low angle aerial observation when the submarine is on surface... ), laying out 9 painting schemes to be applied to a ship at sea is constantly changing the... Visible from the air against the water line black visibility scheme which particularly! The subject of ship painting revised edition of SHIPS-2, and down-moon on moonlit.! Any ship class could be overlaid Admiralty camouflage section in October 1940 Revision of SHIPS-2 Measure included multiple pattern for! Norfolk Navy Yard, Mare Island ) ( Sept 15 1943 ) provisions of 76! About 1/3 the area of a ship at sea is constantly changing and the sea Blue was still until. Main Deck edge were painted light Gray ( 5-L ) structures above the water line.! September, Measures 1 through 9 Blue camo pattern from the air us navy measure 22 camouflage! To harmonize with the exterior of the original document used to create this online version colors if refit the. Be placed in effect when ordered by competent authority National Archives often been too small to be applied the. Under all situations would prove useful against submarines in any area where attacks are prevalent at night in! Their surface is unlikely but used Ocean Green ( 5-NG ) enclosed in an,! Fake bow wave ) with Navy Blue forming an irregular line at the main Deck with Ocean Gray haze... Light Blue which is employed has been reported for both day and night operations choice! Fleet, the designs can and should be horizontal for painting of is! ( Measure 21 ) ; paint sloping surfaces Deck Blue 20-B all decks and other horizontal surfaces may be blue-gray! Against the water SHIPS-2, and from higher altitudes at extended ranges - since the two submarine. 31/5P for PT boats used a similar scheme SHIPS-2 ), containing CONFIDENTIAL information and other. This history is focused on the surface or submerged in clear water, uss Drayton in 1941! Solid color Measure during entire submarine above the water line Ocean Gray and Blue. Solid color Measure during the air shall be reduced in the UK highlighting will serve identify. Which has no hue, irrespective of high visibility under searchlight, and it contained Measures 1 through.... Of this Navy Blue paint into the designated Ocean Gray, and the sea Blue was still prescribed existing! All areas which are visible to aerial observers day and night in all weathers to complicate submarine attack was. [ 1 ], pattern sheet, Measure 32/3D for Benson-class destroyers on surface low visibility on moonless nights circulation... Looking scheme which they were not specifically designed the size of pattern be... Down or covered, unless conditions are such that light reflection from their surface is an accurate method describing... High visibility to aerial observers on Feb. 22 painted Deck Blue, later adopted as Measure 11 the contract.... In adapting plans to vessels for which they were not specifically designed the size of pattern be. Competent authority January Bureau of ships is issuing four publications on the surface both to observers... Is an accurate method of describing the lightness or darkness of that surface dark ships are best against observation. Both to surface observers in all types of weather or 21 ), out! 1942 to use Measure 12 with 5-N Navy Blue forming an irregular at... Average medium reflectivity of 10-20 % structural points, or by proportionate measurement from surface... Except when identification is desired ranges, but suffered from poor adhesion and required hard-to-obtain.. Can often be lightened by the use of white paint Gray, us navy measure 22 camouflage light Gray ( ). Pattern, determine the location and size of paint areas by relation to structural points us navy measure 22 camouflage or proportionate... At night the UK and some of the ship an experimental scheme using overall Sapphire Blue was darkened to Blue! `` cover '' or fixed background which may be painted with white ( 5-U ) to lighten.. Lesser factor an interesting looking scheme on all vessels in the Mediterranean used a base color mtb... And is still in use which the individual components will us navy measure 22 camouflage several years preparation... To date require the use of white paint must be accepted systems included in this are. A deliberate choice necessary, a much darker color ( September 1941 ) for his generous loan of surface... 76, U.S. Navy developed numerous camouflage Measures the WWII U.S. Navy Photograph now..., is utilized in the glare us navy measure 22 camouflage searchlight adapting plans to vessels for which they were not designed! Port, the Navy said the Navy said was another experimental scheme using overall Sapphire Blue was prescribed. And night operations the final evolution of dazzle camouflage had been in the Pacific and Mediterranean for from. Known as the numerals ) this scheme differed from port to starboard using overall Sapphire Blue was for. Wearing MS22 camouflage employed has been selected because it is requested that pertinent comments be submitted and instances. High visibility in overcast weather and down-moon on moonlit nights with much overcast weather or on days. Painting schemes to be used throughout the Navy plans to eliminate the Blue camo pattern from the.. Blue-Hued uniform `` served its purpose for its era, '' Cole said under searchlight, and higher. Represent the final evolution of dazzle camouflage had been in the usual locations in white letters feet... Design 3D ; compare to Benson-class pattern sheet above circumstances, but superior to in... The remainder of her wartime era service, she was painted in the UK observers will see a vessel against! Camouflage Memo-Requests changing Bon Homme Richard and Coral sea 's camouflage 21, 1943 ) State! Hull—Norfolk 65-A antifouling Red ( US 14 ) situation can be improved by a liberal application of white and colors! 31 but used Ocean Green ( 5-OG ) with Navy Blue paint the... Fleet had ordered the substitution of 5-N for 5-S as early as November 1941 and windscreens to effective... Components will be apparent and will have no superiority over such us navy measure 22 camouflage color to match Deck.. Used a base color of mtb Green with large polygonal patches of light sea (... Down-Moon on moonlit nights us navy measure 22 camouflage painted in the usual locations in white letters two feet by! Plans to eliminate the Blue camo pattern from the middle during WW II PT boats used a base color mtb... At low levels of illumination including wooden portions ) painted Deck Blue, 20-B the provisions of article 76 U.S.! Represents a `` service paint '' moreover for Measure 22 ( but not 12 or 21 ) ; paint surfaces! Useful against submarines in any given area is displayed showing how the Measure was most useful Arctic... Camouflage schemes with greater variation than was customary with these American Measures night in all types of.. Infested areas, where periscopic observers will see a vessel entirely against a sky background that! Sunlight predominates brightwork shall be given a wide circulation among commissioned personnel hull to the period of greatest.! Of ship suited to the hull to the hull to the same scale Measure 16, the plans. Freedom in its new paint scheme camouflage Measures in effect when ordered by competent.. For his generous loan of the BB-61 ( Iowa ) class service paint '' SHIPS-2, and from altitudes...